The case is one of dozens of lawsuits filed to remove Trump from the ballot, arguing he is ineligible due to a rarely used clause in the 14th Amendment.
A definitive ruling for Trump would largely end efforts in Colorado, Maine and elsewhere to prevent his name from appearing on the ballot.
The justices will hear arguments in Trump's appeal of a Colorado Supreme Court ruling that he is not eligible to run again for president because he violated a provision in the 14th Amendment.
Dozens of similar cases have been filed in other states seeking to keep Trump from the presidency under a provision of the 14th Amendment.
The board’s hearing officer found that a “preponderance of the evidence” shows Trump is ineligible to run for president, but left the decision to the courts.
The Illinois effort to keep Trump off the March ballot is similar to those filed in several other states, including one in Colorado that is set to appear before the Supreme Court next month.
The nation’s highest court has never ruled on Section 3 of the 14th Amendment, which prohibits those who “engaged in insurrection” from holding office.
Liberal groups sued to remove Trump from the ballot under Section 3 of the 14th Amendment, which prohibits those who “engaged in insurrection” from holding office.